In 2019, the index of the farmland bird population in Belgium was 35.3 (from 100 in 1990). To achieve the sustainable development goal by 2030, this figure must increase. Between 2000 and 2019 (assessment of June 2021), the trend is unfavourable.
Farmland bird population - Belgium and international comparison
index 1990 = 100
|//: Average Growth Rates|
data for a growing number of countries between 1990 and 2018, ranging from 10 to 25 countries
Paquet J.Y. (2020), Direct communication 24/09/2020, data collected as part of the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme, https://pecbms.info/ and Eurostat (2020), Common bird index by type of species - EU aggregate, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat (consulted on 28/09/2020).
Farmland bird population by region - Belgium
Flemish region index 2007 = 100; Walloon region: index 1990 = 100
|//: Average Growth Rates|
INBO (2020), Algemene broedvogelindex, https://www.inbo.be/nl/natuurindicator/algemene-broedvogelindex (consulted on 28/09/2020) & Paquet J.Y. (2020), Direct communication 24/09/2020, data collected as part of the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme, https://pecbms.info/.
Definition: the farmland bird population index is an aggregated indicator of demographic estimates of 15 species of farmland birds with 1990 as the reference year (1990 = 100). The data come from annual surveys on breeding birds and are collected in the framework of a pan-European bird monitoring network. Currently, only the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region are part of this network and they provide the data used by Eurostat to publish this indicator for Belgium. The Flemish Region has its own monitoring method within a specific observation network and an indicator with 2007 as the reference year (2007 = 100) (INBO, 2015 and 2020), which shows the same evolution. The data come from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. The data for the Flemish Region come from the Instituut natuur- en bosonderzoek.
The birds were chosen because “Birds are seen as good “indicator species” for the integrity of ecosystems and biological diversity. Being close to or at the top of the food chain, they reflect changes in ecosystems rather rapidly compared to other species (OECD, 2012, p. 94). The evolution for other groups of species may therefore be different. The reader can also consult a composite indicator with many species, the Living Planet Index, which was calculated for Belgium in 2020 (WWF, 2020). It is not included here because it is not yet certain that it will be recalculated in the future.
Goal: the farmland bird population index must rise.
The Sustainable Development Goals or SDGs adopted by the UN in 2015 include target 15.5: “Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species”.
The Federal Long-Term Strategic Vision for Sustainable Development contains objective 37: “The goods and services provided by ecosystems will be restored, valorised and used prudently and sustainably, contributing directly to the maintenance of biodiversity (Belgian Official Gazette, 08/10/2013).
International comparison: the farmland bird population is declining in the EU (data for an increasing number of countries between 1990 and 2018, ranging from 10 to 25 countries, since 2011), but at a slower rate than in Belgium. In Europe, the average annual growth rate is -1.2% between 1990 and 2018, compared to -4,2% in Belgium.
UN indicator: the selected indicator is related to indicator 15.5.1 - Red List Index. The red list gives each species a threat level corresponding to its risk of extinction in the short or medium term. This indicator evolves very slowly and is not regularly updated. The farmland bird population index is therefore used as a proxy to represent the entire biodiversity.
SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals: United Nations (2015), Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, document A/RES/70/1.
Indicators: United Nations (2017), Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, document A/RES/71/313.
UN Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/ (consulted on consulted on).
INBO (2015), Direct communication 26/03/2015.
INBO (2020), Europese algemene broedvogelindex, https://www.inbo.be/nl/natuurindicator/europese-algemene-broedvogelindex (consulted on 24/09/2020).
OECD (2012), Towards Green Growth: Monitoring Progress. OECD Indicators, OECD Green Growth Studies, p. 94, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/towards-green-growth-monitoring-progress-9789264111356-en.htm (consulted on 24/09/2020).